Ora pe glob


adina

De: adina 02.01.2008


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Primii care au sarbatorit trecerea in noul an sunt locuitorii Insulelor Kiribati, un paradis tropical situat langa Ecuator la jumatatea distantei dintre Hawaii si Australia. Kiribati se intinde pe o suprafata de 800 de km de la nord la sud, iar capitala Tarawa este situata in Gilberts.

Cu toate ca in mod curent la ora actuala fusul orar este stabilit in functie de timpul universal, GMT, exista diferente sensibile, unele tari avand propriul fus orar.

Cum este stabilita ora pe glob?

Ora pe glob se stabileste in functie de miscarea de rotatie pe care o executa Pamantul in jurul axei. Miscarea de rotatie a Pamantului este efectuata intr-un interval 24 de ore, iar in acest timp orice punct are o miscare de rotatie de 360 de grade, de unde rezulta si diferentele de fus orar.

Daca cele 360 de grade se impart la 24 de ore cat dureaza miscarea de rotatie, se obtine pentru fiecare ora de miscare a Pamantului o distanta de 15 grade longitudine ce poarta denumirea de fus orar. Primul fus orar cuprinde 7° 30' longitudine vestica si 7° 30' longitudine estica, ora 12 considerandu-se a fi atunci cand meridianul din mijlocul unui fus orar se afla in dreptul Soarelui la amiaza. Prin urmare toate localitatile din acel fus orar au aceeasi ora oficiala.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

In anul 1884 la Greenwich in Anglia a fost stabilit timpul de referinta pentru definirea fusurilor orare, denumit Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Meridianul Greenwich desemneaza punctul de start al fiecarui fus orar din lume, timpul universal. Inainte de acesta, oamenii obisnuiau sa masoare timpul in functie de rasaritul si apusul soarelui, rezultand ore diferite de la oras la oras.

Greenwich nu a fost insa realmente primul meridian, ci au fost si alte tari care au clamat aceasta pozitie. Francezii au pretins o buna perioada ca longitudinea zero trecea prin Paris, si anume prin biseria Saint-Sulpice. In 1884 la Washington, cand a fost adoptat Meridianul Greenwich ca prim meridian al lumii, Franta a refuzat sa il recunoasca. Prin urmare intre Franta si Anglia s-a dus un timp o lupta a orgoliilor, cele doua tari mergand in paralel cu meridianele pana in anul 1911. Chiar si la ora actuala o parte dintre cartografii francezi indica pe anumite harti meridianul din Paris.

Tari cu fus orar propriu

Cu toate ca majoritatea tarilor au ora stabilita dupa GMT, unele state au adoptat un fus orar propriu. Cea mai recenta initiativa de acest gen apartine Venezuelei, presedintele Hugo Chavez decretand schimbarea orei tarii, pentru ca poporul sa beneficieze cat mai mult de lumina. Astfel in Venezuela ceasurile vor fi date inapoi cu jumatate de ora, iar noul fus orar va fi introdus de la 1 ianuarie 2008.

Venezuela nu este prima tara care schimba ora locala. Marea Britanie a operat si ea in repetate randuri, 7 la numar, schimbari de fus orar, din anul 1916 si pana in prezent. De asemenea provincia canadiana Newfoundland este cu o jumatate de ora in urma fata de restul tarii iar mai multe orase australiene au propriul fus orar: Eucla (45 de minute inaintea regiunilor vestice), Madura, Mundrabilla si Border Village. De altfel vestul Australiei a adoptat ora de vara pe o perioada de proba (decembrie 2006 - martie 2009) de unde si rezulta diferentele de fus orar.

Datorita diferentei de fus orar, in Dubai week-end-ul nu este asa cum il stim noi, de vineri seara pana duminica seara, ci dureaza de joi seara pana vineri noaptea.

Pe 14 aprilie 2006, si Sri Lanka a modificat fusul orar, dand ceasurile cu 30 de minute in urma pentru a avea aceeasi ora cu cea a tarii vecine, India.

De asemenea, diferente de fus orar se inregistreaza de-a lungul anului cu privire la ceea ce numim “ora de vara’. In Afghanistan spre exemplu nu exista ora de vara, pe cand in Israel trecerea la ora de vara este conditionata prin lege de durata verii (vara trebuie sa dureze minim 150 de zile).



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